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Creating Partial Redaction Policy – Data Redaction Part-IV

Here we are going to discuss Partial Redaction Policy with following points where as in my earlier article we have discussed Full Data Redaction Policy.

  1. Create Partial Redaction Policy
  2. Syntax
  3. Hands-on on Partial Redaction Policy using fixed character short-cut.
  4. Hands-on on Partial Redaction Policy using character data type.
  5. Hands-on on Partial Redaction Policy using number data type.

Lets consider one by one as below:

Create Partial Redaction Policy

Partial Redaction Policy is about Portion of the data would be redacted. For Ex: In your bank monthly statement email, Your account number might redacted in order to read only last 4 digit and rest might replace with ‘*’ or Big DOT.

Note: We can only redact column with character, number, or date-time data types.

Syntax of Creating Partial Redaction Policy

 DBMS_REDACT.ADD_POLICY (
 object_schema IN VARCHAR2 := NULL,
 object_name IN VARCHAR2,
 column_name IN VARCHAR2 := NULL,
 policy_name IN VARCHAR2,
 function_type IN BINARY_INTEGER := NULL,
 function_parameters IN VARCHAR2 := NULL,
 expression IN VARCHAR2,
 enable IN BOOLEAN := TRUE);

function_type: In order to create Partial Redaction, we use DBMS_REDACT.PARTIAL function type.

Hands-on on Partial Redaction Policy using fixed character short-cuts

We can create partial redaction policy with the help of DBMS_REDACT.ADD_POLICY with predefined fixed character short-cut function parameters.

Some function_parameters parameter shortcuts are as below:

DBMS_REDACT.REDACT_US_SSN_F5: Redact first 5 numbers of social security number. Datatype: VARCHAR2. Ex: 546-76-3245 becomes XXX-XX-3245.
DBMS_REDACT.REDACT_US_SSN_L4: Redact last 4 numbers of social security number. Datatype: VARCHAR2. Ex: 546-76-3245 becomes 546-76-XXXX.
DBMS_REDACT.REDACT_US_SSN_ENTIRE: Redact entire social security number. Datatype: VARCHAR2. Ex: 546-76-3245 becomes XXX-XX-XXXX.
DBMS_REDACT.REDACT_NUM_US_SSN_F5: Redact first 5 numbers of social security number. Datatype: NUMBER. Ex: 546763245 becomes XXXXX3245.
DBMS_REDACT.REDACT_NUM_US_SSN_L4: Redact last 4 numbers of social security number. Datatype: NUMBER. Ex: 54676XXXX.
DBMS_REDACT.REDACT_NUM_US_SSN_ENTIRE: Redact entire social security number. Datatype: NUMBER. Ex: 546763245 becomes XXXXXXXXX.
DBMS_REDACT.REDACT_ZIP_CODE: Redact entire 5 digit postal code. Datatype: VARCHAR2. Ex: 96745 becomes XXXXX.
DBMS_REDACT.REDACT_NUM_ZIP_CODE: Redact entire 5 digit postal code. Datatype: NUMBER. Ex: 96745 becomes XXXXX.
DBMS_REDACT.REDACT_DATE_MILLENNIUM: Redacts dates.(DD-MON-YY) becomes 01-JAN-00 (January 1, 2000)
DBMS_REDACT.REDACT_DATE_EPOCH: Redacts all dates to 01-JAN-70.
DBMS_REDACT.REDACT_CCN16_F12: Redact first 12 digit of 16 digit credit card number. 1234-5678-9101-1213 becomes ****-****-****-1213.

To simulate scenario, consider following hands-on on redaction of US social security number upto first 5 number with the help of fixed character short-cuts.

Create table EMPSSN with id,name and ssn column as character datatype as below:

SQL> create table EMPSSN(
 id number(3),
 name varchar2(10),
 ssn varchar2(11));

Insert values accordingly:

 SQL> insert into EMPSSN values(1,'xyz','456-54-3456');
 SQL> insert into EMPSSN values(2,'pqr','955-23-3600');
 SQL> insert into EMPSSN values(3,'abc','652-52-4958');
 SQL> commit;

Query SSN column from EMPSSN table:

 SQL> select * from EMPSSN;
 ID         NAME       SSN
 ---------- ---------- -----------
 1          xyz        456-54-3456
 2          pqr        955-23-3600
 3          abc        652-52-4958

Create partial redacted policy with DBMS_REDACT.REDACT_US_SSN_F5 character short-cut as below:

 BEGIN
 DBMS_REDACT.ADD_POLICY(
 object_schema => 'C##SCOTT',
 object_name => 'EMPSSN',
 column_name => 'ssn',
 policy_name => 'scott_empssn_ssn',
 function_type => DBMS_REDACT.PARTIAL,
 function_parameters => DBMS_REDACT.REDACT_US_SSN_F5,
 expression => '1=1');
 END;
 /

After creating above policy, query SSN column from EMPSSN, you will find redacted Social security number with last 4 digit visible.

 SQL> select * from EMPSSN;
 ID         NAME       SSN
 ---------- ---------- -----------
 1          xyz        XXX-XX-3456
 2          pqr        XXX-XX-3600
 3          abc        XXX-XX-4958

This is about Partial Redaction Policy using fixed character short-cuts

 

Hands-on on Partial Redaction Policy using character data type

To simulate scenario create EMPSSN_CHAR table with id, name and ssn column with datatype: varchar2.

 SQL> create table EMPSSN_CHAR(
 id number(3),
 name varchar2(10),
 ssn varchar2(11));

Insert values accordingly:

 SQL> insert into EMPSSN_CHAR values(1,'xyz','456-54-3456');
 SQL> insert into EMPSSN_CHAR values(2,'pqr','955-23-3600');
 SQL> insert into EMPSSN_CHAR values(3,'abc','652-52-4958');
 SQL> commit;

Query SSN column from EMPSSN_CHAR as below:

 SQL> select * from EMPSSN_CHAR;
 ID         NAME       SSN
 ---------- ---------- -----------
 1          xyz        456-54-3456
 2          pqr        955-23-3600
 3          abc        652-52-4958

Now, create partial redaction policy function_type: DBMS_REDACT.PARTIAL

 BEGIN
 DBMS_REDACT.ADD_POLICY(
 object_schema => 'C##SCOTT',
 object_name => 'EMPSSN_CHAR',
 column_name => 'ssn',
 policy_name => 'c##scott_EMPSSN_CHAR_ssn',
 function_type => DBMS_REDACT.PARTIAL,
 function_parameters => 'VVVFVVFVVVV,VVV-VV-VVVV,*,1,5',
 expression => '1=1');
 END;
 /

Function parameter gives idea about formatting of redaction output.
1st Parameter: Character ‘V’ can be potentially redacted. And character ‘F’ can be use for formatting character like hyphens or blank spaces.
2nd Parameter: asterisk(*) use to mask character, specifies the character to be used for the redaction.
3rd Parameter: Starting digit position: In our case: 1
4th Parameter: Ending digit position: In our case: 5

After creating above policy, query SSN column from EMPSSN_CHAR table, you will find Social Security Number redacted upto first 5 characters and visible last 4 characters, as below:

SQL> select * from EMPSSN_CHAR;
 ID         NAME       SSN
 ---------- ---------- -----------
 1          xyz        ***-**-3456
 2          pqr        ***-**-3600
 3          abc        ***-**-4958

This is about Partial Redaction Policy using character data type.

 

Hands-on on Partial Redaction Policy using number data type

To simulate scenario create EMPSSN_NUM table with id, name and ssn column with datatype: number as below:

 SQL> create table EMPSSN_NUM(
 id number(3),
 name varchar2(10),
 ssn number(9));

Query SSN column from EMPSSN_NUM table as below:

 SQL> select * from EMPSSN_NUM;
 ID NAME SSN
 ---------- ---------- ----------
 1 xyz 456543456
 2 pqr 955233600
 3 abc 652524958

Insert values accordingly to above created table:

 SQL> insert into EMPSSN_NUM values(1,'xyz',456543456);
 SQL> insert into EMPSSN_NUM values(2,'pqr',955233600);
 SQL> insert into EMPSSN_NUM values(3,'abc',652524958);
 SQL> commit;

Now, create partial redaction policy function_type: DBMS_REDACT.PARTIAL

 BEGIN
 DBMS_REDACT.ADD_POLICY(
 object_schema => 'C##SCOTT',
 object_name => 'EMPSSN_NUM',
 column_name => 'ssn',
 policy_name => 'C##SCOTT_EMPSSN_NUM_ssn',
 function_type => DBMS_REDACT.PARTIAL,
 function_parameters => '0,1,5',
 expression => '1=1');
 END;
 /

Function parameter gives idea about formatting of redaction output.
1st parameter: Mask character.
2nd parameter: Starting digit position.
3rd parameter: Ending digit position.

Query SSN column from EMPSSN_NUM table as below, you will find first 5 character of SSN column has been redacted with zero ‘0’.

SQL> select * from EMPSSN_NUM;
 ID         NAME       SSN
 ---------- ---------- ----------
 1          xyz             3456
 2          pqr             3600
 3          abc             4958

This is about Partial Redaction Policy using number data type.

Stay Tune. šŸ™‚

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Full Data Redaction Policy – Data Redaction Part-III

Full Data Redaction can redact entire column data. Redacted value returned to the querying application depends on the data type of the column. Ex: Character data type would redact to single space or NUMBER data type would redact zero.

Here we are going to discuss following topics where as in my earlier article we covered Configuring Data Redaction Policies.

  • Creating full data redaction policy.
  • Syntax
  • Examples of full data redaction policies.
    • Example based on Number data type.
    • Example based on Character data type.
  • Altering the Default Full Data Redaction Value.
  • Hands-on on altering the Default Full Data Redaction Value.

Lets start one by one:

Creating full data redaction policy

To create data redaction policy with full redaction, you need to set unction_type parameter to DBMS_REDACT.FULL in DBMS_REDACT.ADD_POLICY syntax. By default, Number would be redacted by zero (0) and character would be redacted by single space. Default values can be modify with the help of DBMS_REDACT.UPDATE_FULL_REDACTION_VALUES procedure.

Syntax for creating Full Data Redaction policy:

DBMS_REDACT.ADD_POLICY (
 object_schema IN VARCHAR2 := NULL, 
 object_name IN VARCHAR2,
 column_name IN VARCHAR2 := NULL,
 policy_name IN VARCHAR2,
 function_type IN BINARY_INTEGER := NULL,
 expression IN VARCHAR2,
 enable IN BOOLEAN := TRUE);

Examples of full data redaction policies

Example 1:

Let me demonstrate full data redaction for all the values of MOBILE column from C##SCOTT.EMP table. When any user will access the MOBILE column, expression parameter would apply policy except users who have been granted with EXEMPT REDACTION POLICY system privilege.

Let me connect to C##SCOTT user and create EMP table to simulate environment.

SQL> show user
USER is "C##SCOTT"
create table EMP
(
empid number(5),
ename varchar2(30),
mobile number(11)
);
Table created.

Insert below 5 records to EMP table:

SQL> insert into EMP values(1,'scott',1234567898);
SQL> insert into EMP values(2,'system',1234567898);
SQL> insert into EMP values(3,'sys',1234567898);
SQL> insert into EMP values(4,'abc',1234567898);
SQL> insert into EMP values(5,'xyz',1234567898);
SQL> commit;

Query EMP table:

SQL> select * from emp;
EMPID     ENAME                          MOBILE
---------- ------------------------------ ----------
 1         scott                          1234567898
 2         system                         1234567898
 3         sys                            1234567898
 4         abc                            1234567898
 5         xyz                            1234567898

Create full data redaction policy with name: ‘full_redact_mobile’ on MOBILE column of EMP table as below:

SQL> BEGIN
 DBMS_REDACT.ADD_POLICY(
 object_schema => 'C##SCOTT',
 object_name => 'EMP',
 column_name => 'MOBILE',
 policy_name => 'full_redact_mobile',
 function_type => DBMS_REDACT.FULL,
 expression => '1=1');
END;
/
 function_type => DBMS_REDACT.FULL,
                  *
ERROR at line 7:
ORA-06550: line 7, column 24:
PLS-00201: identifier 'DBMS_REDACT' must be declared
ORA-06550: line 2, column 2:
PL/SQL: Statement ignored

Above full data redaction policy creation failed with “PLS-00201: identifier ‘DBMS_REDACT’ must be declared” Because we are forgotten to grant DBMS_REDACT procedure execute permission to C##SCOTT user.

Grant EXECUTE permission to C##SCOTT user as below:

SQL> grant execute on DBMS_REDACT to C##SCOTT;
Grant succeeded.

Policy created successfully after assigning execute privilege:

 SQL> BEGIN
 DBMS_REDACT.ADD_POLICY(
 object_schema => 'C##SCOTT',
 object_name => 'EMP',
 column_name => 'MOBILE',
 policy_name => 'full_redact_mobile',
 function_type => DBMS_REDACT.FULL,
 expression => '1=1');
END;
/
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Now query EMP table and you will find redacted MOBILE column as zero (default value)

SQL> select * from emp;
EMPID     ENAME                          MOBILE
---------- ------------------------------ ----------
 1         scott                          0
 2         system                         0
 3         sys                            0
 4         abc                            0
 5         xyz                            0

This is about full data redaction in terms of NUMBER.

 

Example 2:

Let me demonstrate full data redaction for all the values of ENAME column from C##SCOTT.NEW_EMP table.
Note: We can’t consider same EMP table for character data redaction because according to data redaction rules, only one redaction policy can be configure per table.

Creating NEW_EMP table as below:

create table NEW_EMP
(
empid number(5),
ename varchar2(30),
mobile number(11)
);

Insert below values to NEW_EMP as below:

SQL> insert into NEW_EMP values(1,'test',1234567898);
SQL> insert into NEW_EMP values(2,'test',1234567898);
SQL> insert into NEW_EMP values(3,'test',1234567898);
SQL> commit;

Query NEW_EMP table:

 SQL> select * from new_emp;
 EMPID     ENAME                          MOBILE
---------- ------------------------------ ----------
 1         test                           1234567898
 2         test                           1234567898
 3         test                           1234567898

Create full data redaction policy with name:’full_redact_ename’ on ENAME column on newly created table. i.e. NEW_EMP:

 SQL> BEGIN
 DBMS_REDACT.ADD_POLICY(
 object_schema => 'C##SCOTT',
 object_name => 'NEW_EMP',
 column_name => 'ENAME',
 policy_name => 'full_redact_ename',
 function_type => DBMS_REDACT.FULL,
 expression => '1=1');
 END;
 /

Query NEW_EMP table and you will find ENAME column is redacted with single blank space (default) as below:

 SQL> select * from new_emp;
 EMPID     ENAME                          MOBILE
---------- ------------------------------ ----------
 1                                        1234567898
 2                                        1234567898
 3                                        1234567898

 

Altering the Default Full Data Redaction Value.

To alter, Use DBMS_REDACT.UPDATE_FULL_REDACTION_VALUES procedure to modify default value. for Ex: zero is the default redacted value in case of full redaction for number data type. In case of modification of this value we need to run DBMS_REDACT.UPDATE_FULL_REDACTION_VALUES procedure. This modification is applicable to every data redaction policy within instance.

Note: Database bounce would require to take effect of changed value.

Find current default value by querying REDACTION_VALUES_FOR_TYPE_FULL data dictionary view. With this data dictionary view you can find out current default values of NUMBER_VALUE, BINARY_FLOAT_VALUE, BINARY_DOUBLE_VALUE, CHAR_VALUE, VARCHAR_VALUE, NCHAR_VALUE, NVARCHAR_VALUE, DATE_VALUE, TIMESTAMP_VALUE, TIMESTAMP_WITH_TIME_ZONE_VALUE, BLOB_VALUE, CLOB_VALUE and NCLOB_VALUE data type.

Lets consider hands-on to change full data redaction default value for number data type, i.e. zero (0)

Connect as sysdba and query REDACTION_VALUES_FOR_TYPE_FULL data dictionary view for default full data redacted value for NUMBER data type as below:

[oracle@OL712c ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba
SQL> select NUMBER_VALUE from REDACTION_VALUES_FOR_TYPE_FULL;
NUMBER_VALUE
------------
 0

Execute ‘UPDATE_FULL_REDACTION_VALUES’ of ‘DBMS_REDACT’ procedure in order to change default value to three (3) as below:

SQL> EXEC DBMS_REDACT.UPDATE_FULL_REDACTION_VALUES (number_val => 3);
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

Likewise you can modify following values:

binfloat_val : BINARY_FLOAT data type.
bindouble_val : BINARY_DOUBLE data type.
char_val : CHAR data type.
varchar_val : VARCHAR2 data type.
nchar_val : NCHAR data type.
nvarchar_val : NVARCHAR2 data type.
date_val : DATE data type.
ts_val : TIMESTAMP data type.
tswtz_val : TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE data type.
blob_val : BLOB data type.
clob_val : CLOB data type.
nclob : NCLOB data type.

Again query REDACTION_VALUES_FOR_TYPE_FULL data dictionary view and default data redaction value for NUMBER has changed to three (3).

SQL> select NUMBER_VALUE from REDACTION_VALUES_FOR_TYPE_FULL;
NUMBER_VALUE
------------
 3

Bounce back your instance in order to reflect change in your environment:

SQL> shutdown immediate;
SQL> startup;
SQL> exit;

Connect to C##SCOTT user and query EMP table, you will find data redacted value for NUMBER data type to three (3).

[oracle@OL712c ~]$ sqlplus c##scott/tiger
SQL> select * from emp;
 EMPID     ENAME                          MOBILE
---------- ------------------------------ ----------
 1         scott                          3
 2         system                         3
 3         sys                            3
 4         abc                            3
 5         xyz                            3

This is about Full Data Redaction Policy, Kindly stay tune with my next article about Partial Redaction Policy.

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Configuring Data Redaction Policies – Data Redaction part-II

Oracle Data Redaction policies are responsible to redact data in column based on column data type as well as type of redaction. We can enable and disable policies according to our convenience.

In this article we going to discuss on following topics where as in my earlier article we already cover Data Redaction Introduction part.

  1. About Data Redaction Policies
  2. DBMS package used for Data Redaction and list of procedures in the package.
  3. Privilege required to execute Data Redaction
  4. Ask yourself sort of questions before planning Data Redaction Policies
  5. General syntax

Lets start one by one:

About Data Redaction Policies:

Policies can defines the conditions into which data redaction going to occurs for table/view. Ā Policies who defines kind of redaction to perform, How the data redaction should occur and when data redaction should take place.
Data redaction policies can be fully redact, partially redact, randomly redact and No redact for test purpose.

Policy can be defined with a policy expression which allows for different application users to be presented with either redacted data or actual data, based on whether the policy expression returns TRUE or FALSE. Redaction takes place when the boolean result of evaluating the policy expression is TRUE.

DBMS_REDACT DBMS package is used for Data Redaction and list of procedures in the package are as follows:

DBMS_REDACT.ADD_POLICY : Used to add policy to a table or view.
DBMS_REDACT.ALTER_POLICY : Used to modify already created policy.
DBMS_REDACT.UPDATE_FULL_REDACTION_VALUES : Globally updates the full redaction value for a given data type. Instance restart will required for the same.
DBMS_REDACT.ENABLE_POLICY : Used to enable policy.
DBMS_REDACT.DISABLE_POLICY : Used to disable policy.
DBMS_REDACT.DROP_POLICY : Used to drop policy.

Privilege required to execute Data Redaction

To create data redaction policy, user must have EXECUTE permission/privilege on DBMS_REDACT PL/SQL package. No need of any privileges required to access the underlying tables or views that will be protected against policies.

Ask yourself following questions before planning Data Redaction Policies:

  1. Have you granted with EXECUTE privilege on the DBMS_REDACT PL/SQL package?
  2. Which data type of the table/view column that you want to redact?
  3. Do you use desire column in Oracle Virtual Private Database (VPD) row filtering condition? Because we cant use same column for data redaction.
  4. Which type of redaction you want to perform on table/view? (i.e. full, random, partial, regular expressions, or none)
  5. Which users to apply the Data Redaction policy to?

Note: When you create policy, it will be automatically ready to redact data.

General syntax of the DBMS_REDACT.ADD_POLICY Procedure:

DBMS_REDACT.ADD_POLICY procedure is used to create data redaction policy.

Syntax is as follows:

 DBMS_REDACT.ADD_POLICY (
 object_schema IN VARCHAR2 := NULL,
 object_name IN VARCHAR2 := NULL,
 policy_name IN VARCHAR2, 
 policy_description IN VARCHAR2 := NULL,
 column_name IN VARCHAR2 := NULL,
 column_description IN VARCHAR2 := NULL,
 function_type IN BINARY_INTEGER := DBMS_REDACT.FULL,
 function_parameters IN VARCHAR2 := NULL,
 expression IN VARCHAR2,
 enable IN BOOLEAN := TRUE,
 regexp_pattern IN VARCHAR2 := NULL,
 regexp_replace_string IN VARCHAR2 := NULL,
 regexp_position IN BINARY_INTEGER :=1,
 regexp_occurrence IN BINARY_INTEGER :=0,
 regexp_match_parameter IN VARCHAR2 := NULL);

Details of above syntax parameter:

object_schema: Schema of the object on which the policy will be applied.

object_name: Name of object on which the Data Redaction policy applies.

policy_name: Name of the policy. Should be unique through out instance. Find already created policies by querying data dictionary view: REDACTION_POLICIES.

policy_description: Purpose to create it with precise description.

column_name: Column name on which policy applies.

  • We can apply policy on multiple columns.
  • We can define only one policy on a table/view.
  • No columns are redacted by the policy, in case you don’t specify a column. (for example, by entering NULL)
  • We can’t define a policy on a column that is involved in the SQL expression of any virtual column.

column_description: Precise description of column that are going to be redacted.

function_type: defines types of data redacted policies. Note: Default function_type would be full redaction in case of we omit to specify it.

function_parameters: In case of partial redaction, parameter specifies how column redaction should appear.

expression: Specifies a Boolean SQL expression to decide how the policy is applied.

enable: If parameter set to TRUE, policy will automatically enable at the time of creation. else FALSE will be considered it to enable letter on.

Rest of all parameters: all used for regular expression to redact data, either full or partial. If regexp_pattern parameter don’t match with anything in target data than full redaction will be take place.

Kindly stay tune with my next article about Hand-on on Full Data Redaction Policy.

Oracle 12c Logo

Introduction to Data Redaction Oracle 12c feature – Data Redaction part-I

Data Redaction is oracle 12c feature, thatĀ provides ability to hide your sensitive data in real world.

Best example: While logging to your social site in front of your friends, you wouldn’t hesitate input password because you know while providing your password, It would look like *********. Right? Its nothing but part of security. You will experience the same with the Data Redaction in 12c, lets see how.

In this article, we’ll discuss on Introduction part, Use and benefits of data redaction in real world and scenario simulation to understand the topic.

Introduction:

Data Redaction enables you to change/mask/redact your real data that would be return from database queries issued by applications. Redact your real world data with the help of following types:

  1. Full Redaction:
    With this, you can redact entire column data. Redacted value returned to the querying application depends on the data type of the column. Ex: Character data type would redact to single space or NUMBER data type would redact zero.
  2. Partial Redaction:
    With this, Portion of the data would be redacted. For Ex: In your bank monthly statement email, Your account number might redacted in order to read only last 4 digit and rest might replace with ‘*’ or Big DOT.
  3. Regular Expressions:
    With this, we can redact patterns of data. For Ex: We can use regular expressions to redact land line number OR Email id, thoseĀ have varying character lengths.
    Note: This type is only suitable with character data types.
  4. Random redaction:
    Each time it generates random data for each application user queries. Depending upon data type of that column.
  5. No Redaction:
    This type is available in order to test your internal operation of your already generated redacted policies, with no effect on the results fetch by application user. Useful to test policies definitions before production environment use.

When application user access data at the same time(at query execution time) oracle database redact real data and display it to user in redacted format. This feature will help you to achieve Industry rules & regulations for security purpose.

Use of Data Redaction:

Whenever you worry about your sensitive data security in order to display to nowise person. Think about data redaction. As we discussed, Redaction is nothing but masking of your real world data, Data redaction enable you to mask the data using different styles available that we discuss above.

Best real world examples:

Bank monthly statement on email OR Call center applications OR applications thoseĀ areĀ read-only.

Benefits:

Benefits in order to protect your data areĀ as follows:

  • Various redaction methods available.
  • Best fit for those environment where data will be keep on changing.
  • Easy to create data redaction policy and mange it from central location.
  • Policies having wide variety of function conditions based on SYS_CONTEXT values.

TheseĀ are about the data redaction introduction, its type and benefits, Kindly stay tune with my next article on Configuration of Data RedactionĀ policies.